Understanding the Four B’s concept of First Aid

The core principle of first aid is to save a human life by preventing further injury and promoting fast recovery. In case of an accident, first responders give pre-medical care (first aid) to the people, who are ill or seriously (or minor) injured. If they will understand the four B’s concept of first aid, then they can easily prioritize care when there are several injured people:

•    Breathing: Check for casualties who are not able to breathe properly. If such victims are not provided first aid within minutes, their brain cells will die as they are not breathing. Immediately check for any airway blockage, breathing, and circulation (A-B-C) and perform CPR.

•    Bleeding: If a victim is bleeding heavily, provide first aid care to him/her before emergency help arrives. This may require you to use bandages or other medicines you happen to find at the accident site.

Understanding the Four B’s concept of First Aid

•    Broken bones & fractures: A fracture is a broken bone. Fracture can be closed or open and it requires medical attention. If fracture is the result of major injury, call local emergency number first, and take necessary steps to avoid further injury such as stop bleeding, apply ice packs and perform CPR if the victim is not breathing.

•    Burns: After covering casualties with above injuries, treat victims with burns. Depending on the level and type of burn injury, treat the patient to cool the affected area.

Attend first aid training classes to learn about first aid for fractures, burns, and CPR.

Most common causes of serious injury in children

Young children are at greater risk for many serious injuries than adults. Children have immature physical coordination and cognitive abilities, and are at greater risk of falls, extremity fractures, head injury, minor trauma, etc. However, parents and people taking care of children can take steps to make sure their child is safe and, they must know what to do in the event of an accident.

The most common causes of childhood injuries are:

Most common causes of serious injury in children

•    Choking, strangulation, and suffocation: Choking, suffocation, and strangulation cause serious unintentional injuries, but they are preventable. Give back blows or do abdominal thrusts when the child is choking or suffocating. Parents and other caregivers should learn pediatric CPR and choking first aid to prevent these injuries.

•    Burn injuries: A child’s sensitive skin burns more easily than adults. Burns can be caused by steam or vapour, hot water or any other heat or electrical sources. To reduce the severity of burn injuries, apply cool running water, use a clean dressing, and call doctor.

•    Drowning: Drowning is the most common cause of accidental deaths among infants and children aged 1 to 4. Always supervise your child while swimming and never leave any item, such as bucket filled with water, which could become the cause of drowning.

•    Falls & Poisoning: For limiting fall-related injuries, always supervise your child while playing or doing outdoor activities. If your child does have a heavy fall, immediately contact doctor. Poisoning is a common occurrence among children. Prevention is important, particularly with medicines or anything that could harm your child, to limit poisoning cases.

Understanding AHA Hands-Only CPR (Infographic)

Did you know around 90% of ‘out-of-hospital’ Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) incidents are fatal? The absence of immediate first-aid is one of the major reasons that cause the death of SCA victims. Due to lack of CPR knowledge, many people fail to provide immediate medical help to the patient.

Approved from American Heart Association providing hands-only CPR is an effective way to save the life of a person who has suffered a sudden cardiac arrest. In hands-only CPR, chest compressions are performed on the patient without mouth-to-mouth breathing. Studies have shown that hand-only CPR can be as effective as conventional CPR. Providing hands-only CPR immediately to the patient can save his life. Apart from giving chest compressions, it is important to call emergency medical care so the medical help arrives on time. Take a look at the below infographic for more information on AHA hands-free CPR and how it can save the life of a patient.


Understanding AHA Hands-Only CPR

The F.A.S.T Test and Stroke Emergency

Nearly 800,000 people in the U.S. experience stroke every year, which means one stroke occurs every 40 seconds. A stroke is an acute neurological injury that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted, due to blood clot (ischemic) or there is bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic). Stroke is also called ‘Cerebrovascular Accident.’  Due to interruption in blood supply, brain cells begin to die within minutes. So the victim requires emergency care at the first sign of a stroke. First responders need to act ‘FAST’ in case of stroke emergency.

Understanding the F.A.S.T Test
•    F stands for Face: As a first responder, you need to check the face of the stroke patient. Do you notice any sign of facial weakness? Has their mouth fallen on one side?
•    A stands for Arms: Check whether the victim can lift his or her both arms? A stroke patient cannot raise his/her arm fully.
•    S stands for Speech: A stroke victim faces difficulty in understanding and producing speech. If you notice the victim’s speech is slurred and he/she is not able to understand your voice, then it can be a stroke emergency.
•    T stands for Time: If you see any of these signs immediately call emergency services or take the patient to the hospital.

The F.A.S.T Test and Stroke Emergency

The F.A.S.T Test and Stroke Emergency

Early treatment saves many lives and reduces the effects of stroke. By learning the FAST test during CPR training, you could recognize the symptoms of stroke and save someone’s life!

Understanding AVPU Mnemonic for first responders

The AVPU Mnemonic is an acronym for Alert, Voice, Pain, and Unresponsive. It is a system that can be used by first responders and emergency medical professionals to measure or record a victim’s responsiveness at the time of emergency situation. The four levels of AVPU scale include:

‘A’ stands for Alert: In this state, the patient is fully awake and alert. Though neurologically patient may not respond normally, but they can respond to your voices and follow commands given by first responders.

‘V’ stands for Voice: It may happen that the victim is not alert but you can get them to open their eyes. If the injured person obeys a command given by you or is able to speak to you, then you can say that they are responsive to voice.

‘P’ stands for Pain: In this state, the victim doesn’t talk or respond to your voice. They only respond to a pain stimulus when you try pinching him/her.

‘U’ stands for unresponsive: If the patient is not showing any voice or motor response to your voice or pain stimulus, then they are completely unconscious.

Understanding AVPU Mnemonic for first responders

Understanding AVPU Mnemonic for first responders

The 4-points of AVPU Mnemonic help in faster assessment of the injured person’s consciousness level by first responders, EMTs, doctors, and nurses. The AVPU scale is very helpful in determining the level of responsiveness of the victim in an emergency setting.

CPR Training Timeline – Infographic

Sudden cardiac arrest causes about 325,000 deaths in the United States each year and at least one child dies from choking on food every five days in the country. The number of deaths due to cardiac arrest, choking, and drowning can be decreased with immediate CPR treatment. CPR is a lifesaver emergency treatment given to victims to restore the flow of oxygenated blood to the brain. However, CPR may seem to be a modern technique but its use can be traced back almost 275 years from now (2015). The infographic presents a timeline of the development of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and highlights the history of CPR.

The CPR originated in the year 1740 when the Paris Academy of Sciences officially recommended mouth-to-mouth resuscitation for drowning victims, but the first documented chest compression was performed by Dr. Friedrich Maass. When given properly and immediately to a victim, who has stopped breathing, CPR can save lives. If you don’t know how to perform CPR correctly, then join CPR training classes, and see the below infographic to learn more about CPR history.

CPR Training Timeline

Three P’s of First Aid

The aim of First Aid is to provide immediate/initial care for an illness or injury. In an emergency situation, first aid treatment is given to a victim to prevent the condition from worsening and prevent further injury. The 3 P’s of First Aid will guide you to determine first aid treatments and the priorities. Here are the three P’s in order:

First ‘P’ – Preserve Life: The main responsibility of a bystander/first responder is to preserve life of the injured person by providing first aid treatments. After assessing the emergency scene for dangers, first responders should start the C-A-B procedure of first aid. Circulation – Assess the quality of their circulation , Airway – ensure that the victim has an airway, Breathing – ensure that the person is breathing. If required perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and rescue breathing until medical professionals arrive.

Second ‘P’ – Prevent Deterioration: The patient must be kept stable and his/her condition must not worsen before emergency medical technicians arrive. The main responsibilities of a first responder in this stage include placing casualty in a comfortable and safe position, providing comfort to casualty, preventing further injury, and applying first aid techniques.

Third ‘P’ – Promote Recovery: Following the first aid treatment, first responder should now encourage confidence in the patient, attempt to relieve pain, and take steps that may help in the recovery process.

Three P's of first aid

Three P’s of first aid

Though first responders have a number of responsibilities during emergencies, but remembering these three P’s of first aid will help them to prioritize things that are important for the victim.

Understanding Levels of Burn Injuries

Burn injuries are one of the most common types of injuries suffered by people. Most burn injuries are minor ones. However, some burn injuries can cause significant damage and put the life of the person in danger. A burn injury can cause damage to your body’s tissues. The extent of the damage depends on the type of burn suffered by the person.

Broadly, burn injuries are classified into 3 categories. These include first degree burns, second degree burns and third degree burns. First degree burns are considered minor burns and they heal quickly. Second and third degree burns, on the other hand, can be dangerous. A third degree burn can be very dangerous as it can have many toxic effects on the body. Immediate medical care should be provided to save the life of the patient. In this video, you can learn more about the levels of burn injuries and the impact they can have on human body.


Pediatric CPR/AED First Aid Training Course

The Pediatric first aid course is designed for people caring for young children and infants. All childcare professionals are required to have a CPR and First Aid certification, which needs to renewed every 1 to 2 years. So, let’s have a brief look into the Pediatric First Aid Course:

Who should attend the course?
Anyone can take this course to learn more about first aid for babies and children. Though, it is suitable for babysitters, nannies, pre-school workers, crèche workers, sport and leisure staff, parents and anyone responsible for children welfare.

What are the contents of the course?
Pediatric first aid training courses vary from 2 hours to two days. People attending Pediatric first aid class will learn and understand how to administer emergency first aid when an infant or child is choking, unable to breathe, has a chronic medical condition or sudden illness, and other lifesaving skills. Participants also learn to perform CPR and operate automated electrical defibrillator (AED).

Pediatric CPR/AED First Aid Training Course

Pediatric CPR/AED First Aid Training Course

Pediatric First Aid Certification
On completion of the course, participants will learn about a comprehensive set of skills that may enable them to save a life during emergencies involving infants and children. They will be certified in both First Aid and CPR/AED and a certificate will be issued which is valid for 2 years.

First aid C’s: Check, Call, and Care

Emergencies can happen anytime, anywhere. We should always “be prepared” to provide first aid treatment to a person who has been injured or has suddenly become sick. Proper first aid training can mean the difference between life and death for the victim. However, knowing the three C’s of first aid is equally important. The 3 C’s of First Aid provide a structure for how you should act in an emergency situation:


First aid C’s: Check, Call, and Care

First aid C’s: Check, Call, and Care

The first C – Check: This step involves checking for anything unsafe, such as traffic, fire, and other hazardous items and ensuring that the first responder is not putting himself/herself in danger while helping the victim. If possible ask for assistance from anyone around the scene.

The second C – Call: Emergency situations demand quick and careful action from first responders. Once done with the inspection of the scene, check to see if the victim is breathing or has a pulse or not. Call 911 immediately or the local emergency number and provide correct information about the situation, patient, and location.

The Third C – Care:  Once you have followed the first two C’s, first responders are required to provide initial care until medical professional arrive. Continuously monitor victim’s breathing, and condition. Give any specific care needed such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or follow the CAB (Circulation- Airway-Breathing) of first aid.

First aid or CPR training is particularly important during medical crisis. One could never go wrong when performing first aid, if they attend safety training classes and learn about First Aid basics.