Bleeding and Cuts: Three P’s you should remember

External bleeding can result from injuries or accidents. Generally when your skin is cut or scrapped by an object, the injured area begins to bleed. Bleeding and cuts are often accompanied by fear and anxiety, thus causing the situation to worsen. Severe bleeding can lead to distress and loss of consciousness. Bleeding due to cuts or other wounds calls for an emergency first aid treatment to help the patient recover and prevent further damage. The best way to remember the first aid steps for bleeding & wound care treatment is to consider the 3 P’s concept:

• P – Position the patient first: Help the injured person lie down or sit in the most comfortable position. This way you can help to reduce anxiety and heart rate in the injured patient.

• P – Position the injured part: If the wound is on the arm, limb or leg, ask the patient to raise it to comfortable position in order to reduce blood flow to the injured area. Do remember that if bleeding is due to a major accident resulting in a fracture, then don’t move the injured part too much. People who take first aid training classes are often taught about the level of elevation. If you’re not trained in wound management, raise the part that’s injured without causing further discomfort to the patient.

• P – Pressure should be applied: For small cuts, remove the debris first and clean the area. Apply pressure on the wound using a bandage. Tape a fresh bandage when bleeding has stopped. In severe bleeding cases, apply direct pressure on the wound using broadfold bandage to stop further blood loss. If blood loss through the injured part continues, take the patient to the hospital or call for medical help.

Bleeding and Cuts: Three P’s you should remember

Emergency situations may vary in bleeding cases; the three P’s mentioned here will help first responders to give immediate first aid care to the patient.

Debunking 5 Myths about Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), the leading cause of death in the U.S., affects nearly 326,000 people of all ages in the U.S. every year. More than 65% of Americans underestimate the seriousness of SCA. They believe SCA to be a type of heart attack. There are five common myths about SCA that act as a barrier to bystander action.

•    Myth #1: SCA occurs only in elderly adults: SCA occurs in all age groups including the senior people, athletes and teenage group.
•    Myth #2: SCA and heart attack is same: Heart attacks generally occur in individuals with an existing heart condition. In SCA, victims lose consciousness immediately, which can cause brain damage if not treated within first few minutes. However, in heart attack, patient has a chance to arrive at a hospital for receiving treatment.
•    Myth #3: Waiting for EMS professionals to arrive would be a better option: EMS professionals generally take in an average 11 minutes to arrive at the emergency site. Bystander intervention before they arrive may make a difference between life and death for the victim.
•    Myth #4: I’m not qualified to perform CPR: SCA victim’s chance of survival increases with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). People can take CPR training course or learn hands-only CPR to save a life during emergency. During the National CPR/AED Awareness week in June 2015, the American Heart Association encouraged all Americans to learn and use hands-only CPR if they have difficulty remembering conventional CPR.
•    Myth #5: I may hurt the patient by using AED: Though AEDs are complicated instruments but not difficult to operate once you’re trained in it. A SCA patient must be revived within 5 minutes using AED in order to avoid brain damage.

Myths about Sudden Cardiac Arrest
October is the National Sudden Cardiac Arrest Awareness Month, dedicated to educating public about what SCA is, myths to be avoided, and how to respond in a SCA emergency. Get trained in CPR and support the community during the SCA Awareness Month.

Use “PASTE” for deeper assessment when taking “SAMPLE” history

“SAMPLE” is a first aid mnemonic acronym used for a person’s medical assessment. The SAMPLE history taking is either performed by emergency medical technicians (EMT) or first responders during an emergency. The questions that are asked to the patient include Signs & Symptoms, Allergies, Medications, Past medical history, Last oral intake, and Events leading up to present injury (SAMPLE).

The signs and symptoms assessment is very important, especially during respiratory emergencies, but they are objective. So “PASTE” can be used by the rescuer to gather relevant information about the patient’s health. This is an alternate mnemonic for evaluating a patient having difficulty in breathing. PASTE stands for:

•    Provoke: Find out whether any external factor such as movement is making the situation better or worse.
•    Associated Chest Pain: This will elicit descriptions of the patient’s pain in and around chest area.
•    Sputum production (color): Is the patient coughing up sputum. Mucus-like sputum can be an indication of infection or any problem in respiratory system.
•    Talking & Tiredness: Is the patient talking with you? Is he/she feeling tired? If the patient is not talking or responding to your voice, perform CPR immediately.
•    Exacerbation: Check whether the condition of the patient is worsening with time.

PASTE Technique

Usually, OPQRST (Onset, Provocation, Quality, Radiation, Severity, and Time) acronym is used in lieu with SAMPLE for taking history of an injured person. However, this can be modified for a specific assessment of a patient with a complaint of shortness of breath. PASTE history taking proves to be beneficial in saving life of a person during respiratory emergencies. Such emergency mnemonics are being taught in first aid training classes so that EMTs and first responders can better assess the patient’s condition.

Tips for Keeping Children Safe at Home and Outdoors

Every year, thousands of toddlers and children are injured either inside their homes or outside while playing. In fact, injuries are the leading cause of death in children older than 12 months. That’s why keeping children safe at all times is a big worry for most parents, babysitters, childcare professionals, and nannies. Learn new ways to keep your child safe at home and away in this infographic.

Children are always eager to explore their environment, whether they’re in the kitchen or bathroom. But the fact is that children are not able to anticipate the consequences of their actions. Fortunately, most injuries suffered by them are avoidable through prevention and care. The more cautious you are, the less likely children are to be seriously injured. From how to childproof your kitchen to maintaining safety when they play outside, the infographic below will help you take care of your child whether indoors or outdoors.


National Preparedness Month is coming: Get ready!

National Preparedness Month, sponsored by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is observed every year in the month of September in the U.S. FEMA aims to empower and educate Americans to respond to all types of emergencies and disasters throughout the National Preparedness Month. Emergencies can happen anywhere, anytime, so it’s very important for you to prepare yourself for an unexpected emergency. Here’s how you can support FEMA in its emergency preparedness efforts:

•    Be aware of emergencies: Keep yourself and family members aware of different emergencies that may affect you. Access the website to know what’s important for you and others when an emergency might occur.

•    Get an emergency supply kit: A basic emergency kit should include first aid supplies and food & water in sufficient quantity for at least 72 hours.

•    Make a family emergency plan: Discuss and identify the responsibilities of each family member about how to respond to emergencies while at home, work or public places. By having an emergency preparedness plan you save time and life during real situations.

•    Get trained: At least one member of your family should be trained in first aid and CPR. This will help you improve your response level during and after an emergency.

National Preparedness Month is coming: Get ready!
This September, as part of National Preparedness Month, all Americans are encouraged to take actions, develop an emergency plan, and get involved with the community for emergency management.

How to Perform CPR on Dogs: Step-by-Step Guide (Video)

If your dog becomes unconscious, is unresponsive, or have no heartbeat, you must begin to perform CPR immediately. This video will help you learn how to do CPR on a dog in an emergency situation.

Pet CPR is appropriate when a dog, cat or other pet is experiencing cardiopulmonary arrest, choking, electrocution, or trauma. Pet cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving procedure used to help dogs that have stopped breathing. Pet CPR procedure consists of three steps: Positioning the dog, performing chest compressions, and providing artificial respiration. Before beginning the compression procedure, the dog must be laid on its right side on a flat surface. Compressions should be given at a rate of 15 per 10 seconds. Alternate chest compressions with mouth-to-nose rescue breaths. These steps should be performed until the dog starts breathing or gains normal heart rate. Equipping yourself with the knowledge of CPR can help you buy time for your dog in an emergency situation. See the below video to get a proper demonstration on how to provide CPR to a dog.

Assessing pain using ‘SOCRATES’ rule

Taking a history from a patient suffering from acute or chronic pain is necessary for correct examination and providing medical care. To identify and characterize the pain symptoms, EMTs or doctors can use SOCRATES rule. SOCRATES is a mnemonic acronym used by emergency medical services and other health professionals to evaluate the nature of pain experienced by a patient following an accident.

•    Site: Ask the patient where is the pain? What body part/parts are involved? By identifying the site of pain, you can easily make diagnostic decision.

•    Onset: When did the pain start? Ask whether the pain is sudden, rapid or more gradual one.

•    Character: Ask the patient to describe the pain. Is it sharp, dull, sore or stabbing?

•    Radiating: Does the pain spread into other areas of the body? For example, if the pain is radiating from back to the arms and legs, then the patient may require surgery.

•    Associated symptoms: It may happen that the patient experiences other symptoms such as nausea or vomiting with the pain.

•    Timing: This is different from the onset of pain. Ask the patient when did he/she feel the pain most? Is it constant or does it happen at specific time of the day? Whether a certain movement is elevating the pain?

Assessing pain using ‘SOCRATES’ rule
•    Exacerbating and relieving factors: What makes the pain better or worse? Sometimes, certain physical position or medication can relieve the pain.

•    Severity: The patient should be asked to give a number to the pain on a scale of 0–10, wherein 0 being the lowest and 10 being the most severe pain experienced. Emergency medical professionals with first aid and CPR certification are better able to use the SOCRATES rule in assessing pain.

Understanding steps and importance of AHA Hands-Only CPR – Video

Most people, who experience sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) at home, work or in a public location, die because they don’t receive immediate CPR from bystanders at the site. As a first responder, now you can help a person in a SCA emergency with the help of this video. The video explains the two steps of hands-only CPR that can help rescuers save lives during SCA emergencies.

Hands-Only CPR is CPR without mouth-to-mouth breaths. The American Heart Association has recommended this CPR procedure for use in people who collapse suddenly in an ‘out-of-hospital’ setting. The two steps of Hands-Only CPR can increase the patient’s chance of survival. The two simple steps are: First – Call 9-1-1 and provide accurate information to the 911 dispatcher. Second – Provide chest compressions to the patient at a rapid rate of 100 compressions per minute. If the hands-only CPR technique is still not clear to you, check out this video to understand how to do this type of resuscitation.

AED: When and why do we need them?

An Automatic External Defibrillator (AED) is a battery-operated, portable device that applies electrical therapy, allowing the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm in a person suffering from a Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA). The use of AED dramatically increases the chance of survival of the victim to as much as 70% and higher.

When to use an AED?
When a person collapses due to cardiac arrest, the heart goes under the state of ventricular fibrillation. This rhythm is fatal for heart and the victim. An AED is used to stop the fatal rhythm by applying an electric shock to restore the normal rhythm. AED should be used in situations wherein the victim is unconsciousness and doesn’t respond to your voice.

AED: When and why do we need them?

Why to use an AED?
95% of SCA victims die from it, most within minutes. CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) performed on the SCA patient improves his/her chances of survival. If the patient is not regaining normal heart beat and breathing, treat him/her with an AED. This can be lifesaving for the patient. AEDs can be used by untrained personnel till medical professionals arrive. AEDs are now commonly available in many public places, such as shopping complex, office buildings, schools, airports, airplanes, sports arenas, and fitness centers.

By taking a CPR course and learning how to use an AED can make the difference for life and death for someone. Using an AED can help save someone’s life.

Be Emergency Ready for First-Aid – Infographic

Did you know around 4,500 fire and burn deaths are recorded every year in the US? Lack of immediate medical help is one of the main factors responsible for these deaths. Many people find themselves ill-equipped to handle medical emergencies.

Knowledge and understanding of first-aid can go a long way when it comes to helping a person who’s suffered a burn injury, heat stroke or any other type of injury. For businesses as well as homeowners, it is important to keep the first-aid kit handy. However, many people have little knowledge of the things that should be kept in the first-aid box. Apart from adhesive bandages and antibiotic ointment packets, it is important to keep many other things in the first-aid kit. These include sterile gauze pads, tweezers, oral thermometer, bandages etc.

Most importantly, it is essential to be well-aware of the first-aid emergency treatments. Awareness about how to treat common medical conditions can go a long way when it comes to saving the life of an individual and helping him recover quickly.

Be Emergency Ready for First-Aid